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Primary Manufacturing

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Recommended reading:

D. Ott, D. Kralisch, I. Denčić, V. Hessel, Y. Laribi, P. D. Perrichon, C. Berguerand, L. Kiwi-Minsker and P. Loeb, Life Cycle Analysis within Pharmaceutical Process Optimization and Intensification: Case Study of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Production, ChemSusChem, 2014, 7, 3521-3533.

W. De Soete, S. Debaveye, S. De Meester, G. Van der Vorst, W. Aelterman, B. Heirman, P. Cappuyns and J. Dewulf, Environmental Sustainability Assessments of Pharmaceuticals: An Emerging Need for Simplification in Life Cycle Assessments, Environmental Science & Technology, 2014, 48, 12247-12255.

C. Jimenez-Gonzalez and M. R. Overcash, The evolution of life cycle assessment in pharmaceutical and chemical applications – a perspective, Green Chemistry, 2014, 16, 3392-3400.

G. Wernet, S. Conradt, H. Peter Isenring, C. Jimenez-Gonzalez and K. Hungerbühler, Life cycle assessment of fine chemical production: a case study of pharmaceutical synthesis, The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2010, 15, 294-303.

D. Ott, S. Borukhova and V. Hessel, Life cycle assessment of multi-step rufinamide synthesis – from isolated reactions in batch to continuous microreactor networks, Green Chemistry, 2016, 18, 1096-1116.