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Life Cycle Impacts and Environmental Fate of Pharmaceuticals


Introduction

In the first module of this topic we will look at whole-process life cycle assessment of pharmceuticals, focusing primarily on carbon footprint, with illustrative examples from the pharmaceutical industry.  This is followed by a short discussion on secondary manufacturing and packaging.

The rest of the Topic will then focus on end-of-life impacts i.e. the fate of the API in the environment and strategies for reducing the environmental impact of pharmaceuticals in the environment.